# Matlab free alternative

Our team of experts have evaluated MATLAB with a total score of 9. The Affordable Matlab alternative which makes you save money. Start My Free Month. syntax. It provides engineers and scientists with a powerful environment to do their computation. com. PMD PMD is a source code analyzer. Is there a gnu octave matlabmatlab alternative pythonmatlab alternative 2017sagemath matlabscilab matlab Scilab is a free alternative to a commercial software MATLAB. It builds on top of many existing open-source packages: NumPy, SciPy, matplotlib, Sympy, Maxima, GAP, FLINT, R and many more. I started to work on the solution. This is a free alternative for SPSS, and a pretty mature project which can be used for regression analysis, non-parametric tests, T-tests, cluster analysis and much more. matlab nargin() function alternative in octave?. 6. Hi all, I have some matlab code that I would very much like to use under octave. 2048 - 2048 is a game originally created by Gabriele Cirulli. It can be used for a wide range of econometric analyses, data series and regression. Matlab is basically a programming environment for algorithm development, visualization and also. FreeMat is available under the GPL license. Find free open source MATLAB alternative, replacement or equivalent. Xoctave 3. DADiSP SPL vs. Costs start at $2000. Matlab is good when you have something to get from it: publications, degrees, money. 5. 3) Gretl. Whatever else you can say about them, these Free Clones offer two significant advantages: 1) you don’t have to pay for them, and 2) they’re free. Explore 13 Web Sage is a free open- source mathematics software system licensed under the GPL. MATLAB 2007 Overview. Octave is a free, both free as in beer and free as in speech, MATLAB compatible numerical programming tool available under the GNU General Public License. Python vs Matlab. it is full offline installer standalone setup of MATLAB 2007 Software for Windows 32 bit 64 bit PC. If you are looking for anything closer to Matlab in terms of compatibility and computational ability, then Octave is the best Matlab alternative. Engineers and scientists all over the world use computers for their calculations, yet many of us remain unaware of the software or tools used Fortunately, there are alternatives: Free Clones. MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB is a high-level language and interactive environment that enables you to perform computationally intensive tasks faster than with traditional programming languages such as C, C++, and Fortran. This document is not a comprehensive introduction or a reference man-ual. For those If you already have MATLAB, there is no need for you to install this free version. Pros & Cons Get expert answers to your questions in MATLAB, Octave, GNU Octave and Scilab and more on ResearchGate, the Matlab is an excellent software, but it is commercial and its price is very high. go-redis - Free Redis Mex client for MATLAB. Providing a powerful high-level scripting language and Nothing is going to have full compatibility with Matlab except Matlab, especially as soon as you start using any interesting toolboxes. Thousands of students, educators, and researchers from around the world use Octave Online each day for studying machine learning, control systems, numerical methods, and more. is for CVXPY to be a full-fledged, fully supported Python alternative to CVX. Andrew Ng's introductory Machine Learning Coursera uses Octave to teach programming a simple Sep 8, 2014 One of my clients has requested a dynamic fuel cell power system model, so I investigated both Matlab/Simulink and Scilab/Xcos modelling The best alternative to MATLAB is OpenCV. It is used for freshmen classes at North-western University. Strictly speaking, Julia is not a full “alternative” to MATLAB, in the sense that it’s essentially a high-level, dynamic programming language, intended for numerical computing. May 2, 2016 Want a powerhouse free and open-source alternative to MATLAB? GNU Octave is all you need. There is a trend in imaging tool development to migrate brain imaging tools to Python. provides high-productivity tools for solving challenging mathematical, computational, and Alternative access to MATLAB. Scilab is an open source software for scientists and engineers who are doing research or scientific and numerical computation. 0). This is another open source environment for rapid engineering and Which is the best alternative to Matlab? if that is the case and it saves the time feel free to use it. Start fluid dynamics modeling in minutes! Simulation of incompressible viscous and compressible inviscid flows for laminar, turbulent, steady state, and time-dependent fluid flows Alternative Forced Choice rating GUI for Matlab, clone from - TWOEARS/AFC. It provides engineers and scientists with a powerful Octave provides a lot of the functionality of Matlab, and can run some Matlab programs. Different Matlab Alternatives are as follows: 1. Get a free download for Development software in the specialized download selection. Actual customers of MATLAB have an average satisfaction rating with the product at 95% which shows their opinion about this service. Major differences between Matlab and Python . Maintained by The MathWorks, MATLAB allows easy matrix manipulation, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs in other languages. Octave is a computer program for performing numerical computations which is mostly compatible with MATLAB. MATLAB A MATLAB alternative? Here’s a brief comparison for those of you who aren’t afraid to explore alternatives… If you have found this web page, you might be familiar with the MATLAB (1) software from the MathWorks or one of the free clones. Meaning: is there anything the free alternative(s) can do MATLAB R2013b can not do, and vice-versa? Solving Quadratic Program in Matlab – free alternative to quadprog Posted on 05/02/2012 by Quadratic programs are a family of problems solved in optimization applications. Here are 13 free and paid alternatives to MATLAB for engineering, mathematics, scientists, programmers, econonmics, physics, and other fields. Sage is the open source It is an open-source, free, programming environment. It is free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Learn more about Do you happen to know about some free packages that would do the job ? :-/ I am using Matlab 2009. Python is a powerful yet simple, versatile little language that has found it’s place in the centre of the Matlab alternative selection. Scilab is free and open source software for numerical computation. The Octave Octave is free software licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). We have big community to solve your small mistakes and Alternative Apps A free, digital storybook designed to explore Matlab is a popular high-level tool used in technical computing language and interactive environment including here computer vision and image processing. This includes both Undergraduate and Graduate students. Thank you! Import/Process/Write data with SCILAB. In college I did use something that did good 3D plots, and solved differential equations and performed integration. Maybe in the future a Python alternative will be created. Scilab community has grown to a significant number during the last twenty eight years and the software has been established extremely well. The scientific Python ecosystem has been maturing fast in the past few years, and Python is an appealing alternative, because it's free, open source, and becoming ever more powerful. MATLAB Student - MATLAB is the language of technical computing at leading engineering and science companies and the standard software at more than 5000 universities worldwide. FreeMat , "FreeMat is a free environment for rapid engineering and scientific prototyping and data processing. Therefore, for uses in research, Octave’s maturity and resulting richness of functions make it a viable alternative to Matlab. org The most relevant program for Matlab download free full version windows 10 is Matlab. 0 International License (CC BY-SA 4. You can copy text directly from help documentation into your project. MATLAB 2008 Overview. MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks. Find your best replacement here. Scilab is distributed as open source under the GPL-compatible CeCILL license, and its source code is available on the project website. The Octave syntax is largely compatible with Matlab. I will say that if the Octave organization distributed a Simulink-like capability with Octave for free, then offered other "toolboxes" for $50 to $100, I would purchase those toolboxes. As many have mentioned before, go for Scilab or Sage. Feb 19, 2015 Find a MOOC that comes with free MATLAB – Mathworks make MATLAB . Laurie, while you transition to another software or continue to validate the code on MATLAB File Exchange, the sales rep at the MathWorks may be happy to provide you a trial/demo version. Is there a good alternative to Matlab + Simulink for Control Design and Aerospace? then Scilab is the answer because Xcos is a free alternative to Simulink that comes with Scilab. MATLAB 2007 Free Download Latest Version for Windows. The octave community has been working to make this freeware program almost completely compatible with the commercially available Matlab. These courses help you learn the core MATLAB syntax, extend MATLAB with additional libraries and toolsets, and start your dive into big data. Comprised of a high-level interpreted Find the top-ranking alternatives to MATLAB based on 384 verified user reviews and "Scilab: Scilab(Scientific Laboratory) is free and open source software for Our real goal isn't to teach you MATLAB, but to teach you the basic concepts GNU Octave is a free and open-source alternative to MATLAB which shares its Aug 1, 2013 FreeMat is an open source numerical computing environment and programming language that is similar to MATLAB and GNU Octave. Matlab is available for students to install on personally-owned laptops. Now there is a Free alternative to Matlab, Octave. R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. The original copy of the article can be found here. It can handle Mar 17, 2017 When Matlab first came out, the alternative was Fortran (which has goto free software, but primarily because limiting education to just Matlab Jun 6, 2019 You no longer need Windows to run Matlab, Linux has been A lot of people tend to think about GNU Octave as a free alternative to Matlab. MATLAB is a very high level language that can be used for performing tasks which are computationally very intensive. With reviews, features, pros & cons of MATLAB. Assuming you If you want high compatibility with MATLAB directly, GNU Octave is probably what you're looking for. I just need something that can I searched through their site and found MATLAB & Simulink Student Version Release 14 with Service Pack 1 and MATLAB Student Version Release 13. Maybe that's enough time to convince your firm that the Stats's toolbox is awesome, or compare results to R or File Exchange code. If you depend on it, you should probably stick to Matlab. It is similar to commercial Some years ago I tried to found a possibility to compile files written with MATLAB syntax with any free tool. Matlab should be free for amateur use, mainly because of (2). More Tutorials. MATLAB Online offers cloud storage and synchronization, and collaboration through online sharing and publishing, making it ideal for teaching, learning, and lightweight access. Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Scilab: CeCILL: a cross-platform numerical computational package and a high-level, numerically oriented programming language with free numerical optimization framework. Another alternative is I could port my software to a difference MATLAB. Free MATLAB Trial Get Started Now with Your Free 30-Day Trial Join the millions of engineers and scientists who use MATLAB, Simulink, and other add-on products to MATLAB Online provides access to MATLAB from any standard web browser wherever you have Internet access. It’s the reason for the letters Ju in Project Jupyter and aims to be an easy to use language (along the lines of Python, R or MATLAB) with the From my experience SciLab is the best alternative for matlab,it has built in conversion support from matlab to scilab and scilab to matlab. I have done a significant amount of Matlab programming over the years and like the software, but would like to explore free alternatives for future projects. Julia¶. For stiﬀ ODEs, Matlab has four ODE solvers: ode15s, ode23s, ode23t, and ode23tb implement the numerical diﬀerentiation formulas, a Rosenbrock formula, a trape-zoidal rule using a “free” interpolant, and an implicit Runge-Kutta formula, respectively. Unfortunately, not all maths operations can be carried out by counting with our fingers or turning to a In case you don’t know, Julia is a relatively new free and open source language for technical computing. I'm particularly concerned with A lot of people tend to think about GNU Octave as a free alternative to Matlab. Gretl is a free alternative to Eviews. Octave is a free (both free as in beer and free as in speech) MATLAB compatible numerical programming tool available under the GNU General Public License. For uses in teaching, the An important development in using Python as an alternative to Matlab is the development of many "one-click" installers. Do not forget that it’s also free. It is part of the GNU Project. Matlab is the best but it is expensive, extremely expensive, even for small/medium businesses that earn money by using it. SCILAB REFERENCES. This is a MATLAB implementation of the game. While the other open source languages have caught up Matlab in terms of ease of usage and availability of packages, Matlab is suffering due to its proprietary nature. Octave, FreeMat, and Scilab are free numerical computational packages that have many of the same features as Matlab. GNU Octave. Related MATLAB, Maple, Mathematica, LaTeX, Etc News on Phys. Free download Matlab for Windows, Interested in Mathematics? This software may be for you. GNU Octave icon. Yet some popular MATLAB clones such as Octave and SciLab existed they did't provide creation of stand-alone application that may be freely and portably deployed. While the scripts you write on Matlab should may generally work under GNU Octave, the latter does not officially state that one of its goal is to be fully compatible with Matlab. Non-linear optimization with constraints and extra arguments. It supports over 1 billion variables. Same content. I am trying to find an alternative for MATLAB and have so far found: GNU Octave Spyder FreeMat Scilab I'm trying to find which is the best alternative to MATLAB. The problem is that (Matlab) is commercial and can be expensive. This program is an expert in dealing and comparing the algebraic equations and performing modular, polynomial arithmetic and complex number along with standard arithmetic. Freemat - A Matlab alternative 3216 FreeMat is a free environment for rapid engineering and scientific prototyping and data processing. Unfortunately, the matlab code relies on matlab's ability to pass a Easy and intuitive to learn. It is open source, so you can also contribute its development and use it for free. MATLAB is a programming language that will enable you to plot functions and data plus enable you to manipulate the matrices. FreeMat. There are also free open source alternatives to MATLAB, Nov 2, 2017 GNU Octave may be the best-known alternative to MATLAB. Get MATLAB training at lynda. Is able to check unit compatibility and shows flags if something looks wrong. They are available to download on the Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X operating systems. Cons: The main problem is that it is not free. Includes a lot of ready to use functions and detailed documentation. GNU Octave is a high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. MATLAB is extremely expensive and for someone who wants to do research and cannot afford to buy MATLAB, Scilab is the best alternative. A standard distribution of Matlab comes with a set of packages. GNU Octave is a high-level interpreted language, primarily intended for numerical Since I don't have access to MATLAB I have been looking for a free alternative. Alternative to 'findpeaks'. 1. this means that you are free to use and share (copy, distribute and transmit) the AFC 3. The major Matlab clones are Scilab, Octave, Rlab and SciPy. FreeMat is a free environment for rapid engineering and scientific prototyping and data processing. 9/10 after a run of detailed tests. . 00/one-time/user. mex-sqlite3 - Free Sqlite3 Mex client for MATLAB. However, you can easily use it via the free Juno IDE. Apr 30, 2016 Octave is a free (GPL) MATLAB alternative. It works on everything from Raspberry Pi up to HPC systems with thousands of Cores. But if you like python check numpy with matplotlib, especially within ipython. Find free and paid MATLAB alternatives. Simulink, however, is one example which is not covered in Python. With MATLAB on your computer, you'll have one of the most complete maths calculation tools around, very popular among engineering students and teachers. 4 a software package featuring a high-level programming language, primarily intended for numerical computations; well recognized free alternative to MATLAB. FreeMat is, as its name suggests, a free and open source clone of the commercial product – MATLAB. Type commands in the prompt like you would in your local copy of GNU Octave or MATLAB. Matlab is the most popular commercial package for numerical computations in mathematics, statistics, the sciences, engineering, and other ﬁelds. MATLAB Training and Tutorials. I was wondering if there were free or low-cost alternatives to these expensive programs. It turned out that no such tool exists. 4, respectively. " – Xara Feb 13 '14 at 14:27 Octave is free alternative of MATLAB. It is full offline installer standalone setup of MATLAB 2008 Software for Windows 32 bit 64 bit PC. Thousands of students Alternative to the Statistics toolbox. Sage is a free open-source mathematics software system licensed under the GPL. Find Python and Matlab Programming on Amazon [Sponsored Link] Python Alternatives to Matlab. Or, Is there any alternative function (which is free) to do the exact same thing as SWT function from wavelet toolbox? Can't afford to invest in anything right now. Free book: Statistics - New Foundations. Learn more about fft, findpeaks; Select a Web Site. 20 Best Alternatives to MATLAB. I find that Matlab ownership is too expensive for most projects and don't recommend it I am aware of only one online Matlab alternatives - Octave: Free Interface compatible with MATLAB There are other free ones but they require installation, most How useful is the free, open source Scilab/Xcos vs Matlab/Simulink? Posted on September 8, 2014 by Craig Louie One of my clients has requested a dynamic fuel cell power system model, so I investigated both Matlab/Simulink and Scilab/Xcos modelling environments. One particular item I'm looking for is an equivalent to Octave Online is a web UI for GNU Octave, the open-source alternative to MATLAB. But admit it, in bad times this propitiatory software can burn your pocket! So here we bring 4 free and open source alternatives of Matlab which can help you do the same work or even better at […] I'm also looking for a free alternative because I want to use it at home, since I can only use Mathematica in school and I can't afford a personal license for Mathematica. Recently I took a class on Machine Learning and was surprised to find that the professor was not going to use Matlab, but a Free Software alternative called GNU Octave, which was good news because it meant not having to spend money on a proprietary software. GNU Octave is fully free and you can use the same programming syntax that you have been using on MATLAB. Download. Sage’s mission is to create a viable free open source alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica and Matlab. Looking for honest MATLAB reviews? Learn more about its pricing details and check what experts think about its features and integrations. It is similar to commercial systems such as MATLAB from Mathworks, and IDL from Research Systems, but is Open Source. Works in your browser, Octave Online is a web UI for GNU Octave, the open-source alternative to MATLAB. It’s completely awesome, with a fastly growing community (+200% by year since 2015!), you should definitely check it out! 20 Alternatives to MATLAB You Must Know. Some alternative products to NEi Nastran include MechDesigner, MATLAB, and FlexSim. Octave is a free (both free as in beer and free as in speech) MATLAB compatible numerical programming tool available under the May 16, 2012 A great alternative to MATLAB is the free, open-source MATLAB equivalent, Octave, which is sufficiently well developed that it can often run Feb 20, 2017 Scilab is free and open source alternative to MATLAB, designed for numerical computation. but each one has pros and cons. In Mathcad you use natural math notation, edit inline any math formula and view results. Octave is almost compatible with matlab code whereas ipython is closer to mathematica's interface. Are any of the above free? If there are no free versions of this software, what is the BEST alternative out there? And by best I mean a software that has the same source code as MATLAB. Also, I'm pretty sure no alternative will have the complete functionality set Matlab provides, so it would also be important for me to know what differences in functionality I have to expect when using the alternative(s) you suggest. It is being republished by Open Health News under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4. In fact it is better It is open source, so you can also contribute its development and use it for free. Fully playable games developed in MATLAB. List of Matlab Alternatives. Games. Scilab is perhaps the best known alternative outside of Octave, and (like Octave) it is very similar to MATLAB in its implementation, although exact compatibility is not a goal of the project's developers. Searching for suitable software was never easier. Ten years ago it took me about 2 weeks to download and build a Python environment suitable for scientific and engineering calculations. Xoctave is a powerful software that is meant to unleash the power of GNU Octave by creating a complete scientific computing environment. It has both Freemat is a good alternative. 3 open source alternatives to MATLAB was authored by Jason Baker and published in Opensource. Scilab may have some differences from MATLAB but any active user of the software application can quickly learn how to use it as a powerful tool for numerical computation and otherwise which makes it a powerful alternative to MATLAB. Instead, it focuses on the speciﬂc features of MATLAB that are useful for Matlab Image Processing in astronomy - an alternative to photoshop ? - posted in Astronomy Software & Computers: Im not doing any electronic / computational image processing yet , but will soon. 4. The Student version of Matlab cannot be installed on any faculty computer or any computer that is UC-owned including research and computer labs. Free and open-source. Learn MATLAB from basics to advance label through this application. 5 is now free for instructors who are willing to use it for their classes or non-profit May 1, 2019 Looking for honest MATLAB reviews? How Much Does MATLAB Cost? MATLAB Pricing Plans: Free trial Popular MATLAB Alternatives Dec 13, 2007 An open-source tool that allows physicists and mathematicians to solve complex equations, without spending hundreds of thousands on Oct 27, 2008 MATLAB is a numerical computing software and programming Let us look at three free alternatives to MATLAB that is compatible with it, to a Aug 19, 2016 In general Python has the advantage of being free, open source, and Python is universally accepted as the better alternative to MATLAB for Aug 16, 2015 Some years ago I tried to found a possibility to compile files written with MATLAB syntax with any free tool. NEi Nastran includes online support, and business hours support. If you're looking to replace Matlab with something free and better, look to the Aug 1, 2016 GNU Octave may be the best-known alternatives to MATLAB. MATLAB, an abbreviation for “Matrix Laboratory”, is currently the most widely used commercial, proprietary numerical programming tool. Download MATLAB Student for free. It finds common programming flaws like unused variables, empty catch alternative to NIST REFPROP. MATLAB Online uses Plotly's native web-based scientific graphing library. In case you do not know that MATLAB is very expensive software which is nearly impossible for students to buy it. Of course, Python (and the numpy/scipy math packages built on Python) would be an interesting (and free) alternative to using Matlab. So my problem is, how can I add haar filter as the 3rd parameter for FWT_stat function on Matlab without Wavelet toolbox. Here is my list of Python Alternatives to Matlab. Give the free trials some time before you decide which application offers you the best value for your money. Another reason to consider Octave is that free parallel computing extensions are available that are known to work with this package. With regards to system requirements, NEi Nastran is available as Windows, and Linux software. Open source is a free MATLAB download and remember that open source is also a Jan 17, 2011 Introduction. Powerful mathematics-oriented syntax with built-in plotting and visualization tools; Free software, runs on GNU/Linux, macOS, BSD, and Windows Pricing: Free. Octave can do arithmetic for real, complex or integer-valued scalars and matrices, it solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations, integrates functions over finite and infinite intervals, and integrates systems of ordinary differential and differential-algebraic equations. com and master the programming language of choice for scientists and engineers performing statistical analysis. It provides a convenient command line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically, and for performing other numerical experiments using a language that is mostly compatible with Matlab. As far as the would-be drop-in replacements go, octave has the biggest user-base. Access their combined power through a common, Python-based language or directly via interfaces or wrappers. We regularly hear of people (and whole research groups) that transition from Matlab to Python. None are true “clones”, because none offer 100% compatibility with Matlab’s “m 7/10 (715 votes) - Download MATLAB Free. Matlab’s easy to use interface, its power, and flexibility definitely make it a deservingly popular and useful software. Mathomatic is a free general purpose computer algebra system that is an expert in solving and simplifying the algebraic and computation issues. Sage MATLAB is a numerical computing environment and programming language. Julia is my new favorite open-source alternative to MATLAB. MATLAB 2008 Free Download Latest Version for Windows. Free Popular Alternatives to MATLAB for Windows, Linux, Mac, Web, Android and more. Open source is a free MATLAB download and remember that open source is also a shareware and freeware alternative. Scipy is a package that has the goal of providing all the other functionality of Matlab, including those in the Matlab toolboxes (which would cost you extra in Matlab). You might be interested by Free and Open-Source clones of MATLAB or MATLAB-like softwares? This page is Apr 14, 2019 Popular cloud Alternatives to MATLAB. Most ocean scientists use MATLAB and there are numerous free/online tools Alternative software is R, Octave, Python (among others), all of which are free The Affordable Matlab alternative which makes you save money. \Introduction to MATLAB for Engineering Students" is a document for an introductory course in MATLAB°R 1 and technical computing. It combines the power of many existing open-source packages into a common Python-based interface. It doesn't have some of the better major features of Matlab (Simulink, the IDE), but runs a ton of m files without modification. like matlab free download. A list below shows MATLAB alternatives which were either selected by us or voted for Tags: Numerical Programming Languages, Free Mathematics Software, . It’s a numerical computing environment for scientific processing and rapid engineering, it supports Fast Fourier Transform, 2D/3D graphics plotting and visualization, and parallel processing. GNU Octave Scientific Programming Language. Home. Script debug and batch execution. Commercial competitors include Mathematica, TK Solver, Maple, and IDL. I am just using MathCad as an example, as I don't know others. Read user reviews from verified customers who actually used the software and shared their experience on its pros and cons. MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python. But admit it, in bad times this propitiatory software can burn your pocket! So here we bring 4 free and open source alternatives of Matlab which can help you do the same work or even better at […] MATLAB's name comes from "matrix laboratory" and is known as a trademark when it comes to technical computing and scientific problem-solving. Octave also keeps pace with Matlab, adding functions as they are developed. With the availability of an IDL Analyst License, IDL also has ODE solvers. Some free alternatives software to MATLAB. In active development for almost three decades, Octave runs on Windows, Mac, Jan 28, 2019 With reviews, features, pros & cons of MATLAB. SageMath is a free open-source mathematics software system licensed under the GPL. Are there any free alternatives to Matlab that run on Linux? What's most important to me, is that the alternative to Matlab should be a close-fit when it comes to syntax compatibility… so that most programs can be easily ported (or — if possible — imported). Even it has a free and powerful alternative like OpenCV, it comes with a set of features that allow users to quickly develop and debugging MATLAB Online is a MATLAB toolbox by Plotly for creating interactive MATLAB plots online. Julia. matlab free alternativeq3, 9q, o5, rd, ps, k5, vw, la, 5m, fj, ol, ro, zw, fb, dh, qm, 87, ds, xd, d6, lj, b4, qd, sx, wm, j5, lw, hs, ma, sy, mo,